Why Do Temperatures Only Drop to 273°C From As High As 1 Billion Degrees?




One of those basic ideas that, despite our familiarity with it on a daily basis, may easily stump us is temperature. And not just novices can claim this. Understanding the boundaries of temperature has long been a fundamental scientific idea, and its effects go far beyond the realm of pure research.


The study of energy, temperature, heat, and work and how they relate to one another is called thermodynamics. Excuse the pun. The zeroth through third laws are so fundamental that they appear in a variety of fields. And individuals have devoted their lives to trying to refute them, but without success.


The zeroth law states that thermal equilibrium is a transitive connection and that temperature is a significant empirical quantity. They are therefore in thermal equilibrium with one another if item A and object B are in thermal equilibrium with object C. That is essentially stating that thermometers are an accurate method of measurement and that if one states that the temperature was X degrees yesterday and that it is X degrees today, then the temperature was the same on both days.


Imagine the cosmos as a roulette table, which is one of our favorite metaphors for the other three principles. The first law, which states that energy cannot be created or destroyed, is analogous to understanding that you cannot win in this game of chance. We learn from the second law that you cannot even draw. Entropy always rises in an isolated system, and no system is entirely efficient. Fans of perpetual motion machines, I'm sorry, but it's not possible.


You cannot leave the table, according to the third one. You are forced to participate in this game. Everywhere you travel, you are subject to the principles of thermodynamics, which indicate that the absolute zero temperature is the lowest attainable temperature.


What is zero absolute?


The movement of a substance's molecules is what determines an object or substance's temperature. The molecules shake more when it is hotter. The molecules slow down as energy is taken out of a system by thermodynamical processes (such as in a refrigerator, for example).


Absolute zero enters the picture at this point. There will come a day when molecules are still and still. They cannot be slowed down any further. It is impossible to get the temperature much lower.


Absolute zero, or 0 Kelvin, is 273.15°C (459.67°F) on the scale of the International System of Units. Just over a year ago, rubidium gas was cooled to a temperature of 38 picokelvins (3.8 * 10-11 K), which is indeed only a small amount above absolute zero, shattering the previous record for the coldest temperature ever recorded.


What is the universe's highest temperature?



If there is a lower limit, is there also an upper limit because humans desire symmetry? When it comes to how hot something can be, though, things are not always as cut and dry. 5 trillion Kelvin was the highest temperature ever produced in a laboratory. It was produced in the LHC and represented the temperature of the Universe shortly after the Big Bang.


How much hotter can we get, though? Undoubtedly, it might be feasible. We have yet to discover something as rigid as absolute zero in the physics of the hottest. Absolute heat might be 10,000 times hotter than what we have attained, for instance, in particle colliders, among other possibilities. However, it is not rigid.


The only physical limit is determined by the so-called Planck scale. This collection of units of measurement only uses physical constants and tends to indicate the boundaries of known physics. An estimate of the Planck temperature is 1.4 x 1032 K. That is 100 times as much as what a particle accelerator can produce. Although scientists say it can't be any hotter than that, the actual limit might be far lower.

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